Posts

American envoy Richard Grenell compares Iran’s ‘anti-gay brutality’ to that of the Islamic State

U.S. Ambassador to Germany Richard Grenell “has drawn a parallel between the brutal violence perpetrated by the Islamic State terror group and that of Iran.” Grenell (who is gay) indicated that Iran’s ongoing policy of executing its citizens for the “crime” of being gay is similar to the atrocities committed by the Islamic State. The recent hanging of a 31-year-old man for being gay in Iran, Grenell said, should serve as “a wake-up call for anyone who supports basic human rights.” But such atrocities are not happening only in the Islamic State and Iran.

It has become a common tactic of mainstream Islamic groups in West to disassociate themselves, and Islam, from the Islamic State, referencing to ISIS as an aberration of Islam, but the truth is that the Islamic State routinely backed up its actions using verses of the Quran and passages from the Hadith, as well as those tenets of Islamic law. Death for apostasy, death for homosexual activity, death for blaspheming Islam and a range of barbaric practices are routine in Sharia states, so they are not as much of an aberration as many in the West would have the naive populace believe.

U.S. Envoy Richard Grenell

“U.S. Envoy Richard Grenell: Iran’s Anti-Gay Brutality Similiar to that of Islamic State,” by Deborah Danan, Breitbart, February 5, 2019:

TEL AVIV – The U.S. Ambassador to Germany has drawn a parallel between the brutal violence perpetrated by the Islamic State terror group and that of Iran.

Richard Grenell, arguably the most high-profile American envoy in Europe, wrote in Germany’s largest paper, BILD, that Iran’s ongoing policy of executing its citizens for the “crime” of being gay is similar to the atrocities committed by IS.

The recent hanging of a 31-year-old man for being gay in Iran, Grenell said, should serve as “a wake-up call for anyone who supports basic human rights. Politicians, the UN, democratic governments, diplomats, and good people everywhere should speak up – and loudly,” according to remarks translated by The Jerusalem Post.

“Iran’s horrific actions are on par with the brutality and savagery regularly demonstrated by IS,” he added.

The Islamic State has been known to publicly execute gay men, including throwing them from buildings. LGBT rights organization OutRight Action International documented 90 executions of gay people by the Islamic State between 2014 and 2016.

The Jerusalem Post pointed to a 2008 British Wikileaks dispatch which found that Iran had executed “between 4,000 and 6,000 gays and lesbians” since the 1979 revolution.

In his article in BILD, Grenell noted:

This is not the first time the Iranian regime has put a gay man to death with the usual outrageous claims of prostitution, kidnapping, or even pedophilia. And it sadly won’t be the last time they do it either. Barbaric public executions are all too common in a country where consensual homosexual relationships are criminalized and punishable by flogging and death. In Iran, where children as young as nine can be sentenced to death, gay teenagers are publicly hanged in order to terrify and intimidate others from coming out.

Being gay is a death sentence in eight countries and criminalized in 70 more. LGBT status or conduct means arrest, imprisonment, and violence for people who are simply dating or falling in love. Governments that are members of the United Nations have an obligation to protect, respect, and uphold the dignity and fundamental freedoms of their people….

EDITORS NOTE: This Jihad Watch column with images is republished with permission.

Iran: Crowds screaming ‘Death to America’ and ‘Death to Israel’ mark 40th anniversary of Islamic revolution

A civilization based on rage and hate.

“Crowds chant ‘death to Israel’ as Iran marks 40 years since Islamic Revolution,” Times of Israel, February 1, 2019 (thanks to The Religion of Peace):

TEHRAN, Iran — Iran on Friday started celebrating the 40th anniversary of the country’s 1979 Islamic Revolution that toppled the US-backed shah, overturned 2,500 years of monarchical rule and brought hard-line Shiite clerics to power.

The climactic events that year in Iran — where footage of revolutionaries in the streets gave way to black-and-white images of blindfolded American hostages in the US Embassy hostage crisis months later — not only changed Iran’s history but also helped shape today’s Middle East.

The anniversary starts every year on February 1 — the day Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned home from France, after 14 years in exile, to become the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Across Iran, sirens rang out from trains and boats and church bells chimed at 9:33 a.m. Friday — the exact time Khomeini’s chartered Air France Boeing 747 touched down 40 years ago at Tehran’s Mehrabad International Airport.

The 10-day anniversary festivities, known as the “Ten Days of Dawn,” end on February 11, the date Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s government collapsed after brief clashes between some units of the army and revolutionary gunmen and following nationwide protests.

In memory of those events, car drivers turned on their headlights and honked in celebration as helicopters dropped clusters of flowers along the 21-mile route from the airport to the Behesht-e-Zahra cemetery in southern Tehran where Khomeini made his first speech back home and where his tomb stands today.

As part of the celebrations, many Tehran buildings, mostly of government institutions and offices, dawned on Friday draped in the colors of Iran’s green-white-and-red flag while multi-colored lights decorated the main streets….

Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati, head of the influential experts assembly which appoints the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic, delivered a keynote speech rebuking factions seeking better ties with Washington.

“Curses on the wrong school of thought that thinks we can’t run the country unless America helps us,” he said, shaking a raised left hand.

“America’s power is on the decline, we should not be afraid of America,” Jannati said as the crowd shouted slogans such as “Death to America” and “Death to Israel.”…

EDITORS NOTE: This Jihad Watch column with images is republished with permission. The featured photo is by Keith Zhu on Unsplash.

Iran spends $7,000,000,000 every year on jihad terror activities in the Middle East

“Israeli UN Envoy Reveals: Iran Spends $7 Billion Annually on Terror Activities in Middle East,” Algemeiner, January 22, 2019:

Israeli UN Ambassador Danny Danon revealed to the Security Council on Tuesday details of Iran’s terror activities throughout the Middle East.

“The Iranian regime’s obsession with Israel is not just well-known. It is expensive,” he said. “Seven billion dollars annually are directed toward the never ending attempts to destroy Israel. Follow the bloody trail of money starting in Tehran and you will arrive at the terror tunnels in Lebanon and Gaza and the weapons warehouses in Syria. It is now trying to infiltrate Judea and Samaria,”

“With the help of Saleh Al-Arouri, Hamas’ deputy political chief, and Saeed Izadi, the head of the Palestinian branch of the Iranian Quds Force, Iran is trying to turn Judea and Samaria into a fourth military front against Israel,” Danon added. “The world’s silence allows Iran to continue with its operations and aggression to undermine stability in the Middle East.”…

EDITORS NOTE: This Jihad Watch column with images is republished with permission.

Pompeo: “Our effort is to make sure that the Iranian people get control of their capital”

“Our effort is to make sure that the Iranian people get control of their capital, and it becomes a nation that is normal and is not conducting terror campaigns that are unrivaled any place else in the world.”

It is a consummation devoutly to be wished. Let’s hope his assurance translates into real and effective assistance for genuine opponents of the Islamic regime in Iran.

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and President Donald J. Trump

“Pompeo: Trump Admin Will Help Iranian People Take ‘Control of Their Capital,’” by Adam Kredo, Washington Free Beacon, January 14, 2019:

RIYADH, Saudi Arabia—Following meetings with top Saudi Arabian leaders in the country’s capital on Monday, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said that one of the Trump administration’s top regional goals is to “make sure that the Iranian people get control of their capital,” a shot across the bow to a ruling regime that has spent billions to beef up its foreign military and terrorist operations.

Pompeo, speaking to reporters in Riyadh, said that the Trump administration’s primary goal is to empower the Iranian people to rein in the ruling regime, which has spent a fortune on foreign wars and terror operations as its own people suffer from a collapsing economy.

While the administration has been careful to avoid characterizing its policy as regime change, it has become clear that it does supports efforts by the Iranian people to end Tehran’s expansionist march across the region, particularly in Syria and Yemen. The administration also has stated that it opposes the hardline regime and would offer its support to opposition elements in the country.

“Our effort is to make sure that the Iranian people get control of their capital, and it becomes a nation that is normal and is not conducting terror campaigns that are unrivaled any place else in the world,” Pompeo said.

This set of priorities was raised in private meetings between Pompeo, Saudi King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman.

Asked by the Washington Free Beacon if empowering the Iranian people amounts to a sort of passive backing for regime change in Tehran, officials made clear that the United States has no interest in taking the lead in such efforts. Rather, the Trump administration is working to build a coalition of Arab and European allies who can confront the Islamic Republic.

One piece of this effort includes convincing the Iranian people that their government’s financing of terrorism and foreign wars is preventing ordinary citizens from seeing their country’s economy rebound. U.S. and European economic sanctions, officials say, have decimated the Iranian economy and helped to stir popular protests across Iran.

“The end goal is to convince the Iranian people that America is serious about empowering them and creating opportunity for the Iranian people” to confront the regime about their anger over a foreign policy that spends billions on war and terror, Pompeo said in response to questions from the Free Beacon and other news outlets….

EDITORS NOTE: This Jihad Watch column with images is republished with permission. The feature photo is by Mohammad Gh on Unsplash.

EU hits Iran with sanctions over plots to assassinate regime opponents on Dutch, Danish, and French soil

“In the past, the EU has trod cautiously on Iran as it sought to save a beleaguered nuclear deal with Tehran after the US withdrew last year and imposed new sanctions. The Dutch ministers said that at a meeting with Iranian officials ‘it was emphasised that the measures were not linked’ to the Iran nuclear deal.”

Why not? When is the EU going to acknowledge that the Islamic Republic of Iran is a criminal regime that they should not be propping up? Probably only when it’s too late.

“EU hits Iran with sanctions after murder plots,” AFP, January 8, 2019:

The EU hit Iran’s intelligence services with sanctions Tuesday after accusing Tehran of being behind plots to assassinate regime opponents on Dutch, Danish, and French soil.

The move by the 28-nation bloc was announced as the Dutch government said it believed Iran was behind the murders of two dissidents in 2015 and 2017.

“Very encouraging that (the) EU has just agreed on new targeted sanctions against Iran in response to hostile activities and plots being planned and perpetrated in Europe, including Denmark,” Danish Prime Minister Lars Lokke Rasmussen said.

The “EU stands united — such actions are unacceptable and must have consequences,” he tweeted.

Sanctions include the freezing of funds and other financial assets of the Iranian intelligence ministry and individuals, officials said.

Denmark led efforts for sanctions after allegations that Tehran tried to kill three Iranian dissidents on Danish soil.

A manhunt related to the alleged plot against three Iranians suspected of belonging to the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahvaz (ASMLA) led to the shutdown of bridges to Sweden and ferries on September 28.

France last year imposed sanctions on two suspected Iranian agents and others from Iran’s ministry of intelligence and security.

The French security services concluded that the head of operations at the Iranian intelligence ministry had ordered a plot to bomb a rally of the People’s Mujahedeen of Iran (MEK) opposition group in a suburb of Paris in June last year — which Tehran strongly denied….

In the past, the EU has trod cautiously on Iran as it sought to save a beleaguered nuclear deal with Tehran after the US withdrew last year and imposed new sanctions.

The Dutch ministers said that at a meeting with Iranian officials “it was emphasised that the measures were not linked” to the Iran nuclear deal.

“Nevertheless, Iran will be held to account for all matters that affect EU and international security interests…,” including the assassinations in the Netherlands in 2015 and 2017, the letter said.

Dutch police have previously named the two victims as Ali Motamed, 56, who was killed in the central city of Almere in December 2015, and Ahmad Molla Nissi, 52, murdered in The Hague in November 2017.

Dutch news reports had said Motamed was living in the Netherlands under a false name and is really Mohammad Reza Kolahi Samadi — the man behind the largest bomb attack in Iran in 1981.

Nissi was shot dead in The Hague from a moving car, later found to have been stolen from a suburb outside Rotterdam.

Dutch police said Nissi was the chairman of the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahwaz, a group working for the independence of the Ahwaz area in southwestern Iran.

Last June, the Netherlands expelled two Iranian embassy workers in connection with the murders….

EDITORS NOTE: This Jihad Watch column with images is republished with permission. The featured photo is by Sara Kurfeß on Unsplash.

The Washington Post writer Jamal Khashoggi was Publishing Radical Islamic Propaganda. When will WaPo apologize?

In 2018 the media has morphed, overtime, from publishing stories that are just untrue to publishing stories that are pure propaganda. It is not because the U.S. government is controlling the media. It is because the media actively supports one world view and is willing to abandon truth in order to influence politics on a global scale.

American singer, songwriter and lead vocalist for the Doors Jim Morrison said, “Whoever controls the media, controls the mind.”

There is a struggle in the Middle East. It is a tribal struggle that has been going on for nearly 1400 years. It is a struggle between Sunni (followers of the sunna, or “way” of Mohammed) and Shia (shi’atu Ali, “partisans of Ali). This struggle has manifested itself countries like Iraq and Syria. It is also a struggle of Islam against non-Islamic nations and peoples. It is a story that few dare to tell for fear of being labeled Islamophobic or worse a racist.

Those who work to tell the truth about what is really happening in Islam have at best self censored and at the worst jointed with the terrorists.

The Washington Post’s op-ed writer Jamal Khashoggi is but one example. When he was killed by agents of Saudi Arabia. Khashoggi was promoted by the media as a martyr. A man killed for his convictions. But what were his convictions?

Who was Khashoggi?

Jamal Khashoggi was a Sunni. Khashoggi was a follower of an Islamic ultra-fundamentalist doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab called Wahhabism. According to the World Shia Forum:

Khashoggi was a leading critic of Saudi Monarchy, a true rebel who wanted nothing else but democracy for Saudi people, he was revolutionary and a defender of Human rights. well, this is what Tom Friedman from NYT or David Ignatius from WaPo would like us to believe, but let us see the truth, Khashoggi was no different than MBS, he was born, raised and educated in the same KSA as Muhammad bin Salman, he served many kings and crown princes before Muhammad bin Salman started consolidating power after his father became the king in early 2015, the Yemen war or as it should be called Yemen Genocide was launched months later by King Salman on the orders of de facto King MBS.

Khashoggi was no different than MBS when it came to Saudi Shias, Yemen, Syria, Bahrain or Iraq. He participated in Afghan war against Soviets, along with other Salafist Saudi Jihadists.

Jamal Khashoggi was as clearly a traditional Wahhabi who hated jews and shia like all good Wahhabis, he justified and celebrated when a Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr al Nimr, a Human rights activist from eastern province of Qatif was beheaded by the Saudi regime in January 2015.

Khashoggi the propagandist.

We now learn that Jamal Khashoggi published fake op-eds. Buried in a Washington Post article about Khashoggi’s final months, we find this passage:

Maggie Mitchell Salem. Screen shot CSPAN.

Perhaps most problematic for Khashoggi were his connections to an organization funded by Saudi Arabia’s regional nemesis, Qatar. Text messages between Khashoggi and an executive at Qatar Foundation International show that the executive, Maggie Mitchell Salem, at times shaped the columns he submitted to The Washington Post, proposing topics, drafting material and prodding him to take a harder line against the Saudi government. Khashoggi also appears to have relied on a researcher and translator affiliated with the organization. . . .

Editors at The Post’s opinion section, which is separate from the newsroom, said they were unaware of these arrangements. . . [Emphasis added]

Here is Qatar Foundation International’s Executive Director Maggie Mitchell Salem promoting the #ISpeakArabic Campaign.

When the media portrays a op-ed writer like Jamal Khashoggi as: a rebel they mean terrorist, and a defender of human rights they mean defender of Muslim rights. When the New York Times and Washington Post portray Khashoggi as a revolutionary they mean one who is furthering the most radical form of Islam. The form of Islam that created al Qaeda and ISIS.

Maggie Mitchell Salem and Jamal Khashoggi have the same vision – to make Islam dominate in the world. Sadly, many Western leaders have fallen for this propaganda and have their minds controlled by the media.

RELATED ARTICLE: Washington Post admits that Qatar Foundation used Khashoggi’s columns to spread propaganda

Senators: Don’t Go Wobbly on MBS Now

The horrors of the Yemeni civil war appall most who realize the scale of the humanitarian disaster unfolding there. Hundreds of thousands are dead and injured, millions face starvation, a cholera epidemic is raging, and there is no end in sight to the fighting. But for those Senators who appear determined to bring a measure to the floor for a vote intended to force the Trump administration to withdraw U.S. military support for the Saudi-led coalition that’s battling Iran-backed Houthi rebels there, please think again. This is not the time to go wobbly on either Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) or the U.S.-Saudi relationship.

Apparently miffed that CIA Director Gina Haspel had declined to appear in person to answer Senators’ questions about the Agency’s analysis of the Jamal Khashoggi affair, Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and others threatened to hold up administration legislation until Haspel agreed to meet with them. After Haspel then provided that briefing on 4 December—reportedly concluding that MBS personally ordered Khashoggi’s murder—Graham and other Senators now appear even more determined to put a spoke in the U.S.-Saudi relationship. This is dangerously misguided.

For all his obvious shortcomings, MBS is the best chance we or the Saudis will have for the foreseeable future to modernize Saudi Arabia and confront the critical threat of an aggressive and expansionist Iranian regime. For any of that to happen, Saudi Arabia must remain stable. That means the succession from King Salman to his heir-apparent (MBS) must proceed as smoothly as possible. Given the realities of cut-throat palace intrigue among the senior ranks of a tribe just two generations out of the desert, only a ruthless King who rules by fiat can hold things together as the Kingdom undertakes the wrenching growth and modernization phase MBS envisions. MBS has emerged as that ruler.

It is likely that we will never know exactly who ordered the murder of Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on 2 October 2018. All we can be fairly certain of is that it probably was not the Crown Prince. Far more likely is that a conspiracy of rival princes, furious at being passed over by this young upstart and many of them arrested and shaken down in the mass detentions MBS ordered earlier this year, is attempting a palace coup against MBS. The royal family appears to be fully aware of the danger: earlier this week, there was a shuffle within the Saudi military and troops were moved to the capital, Riyadh.

As for Yemen, despite the awful humanitarian crisis there, were the U.S. to abandon the Saudis and their multi-national coalition there (that includes U.S. Green Berets and French Special Forces), the consequences could be far worse. A look at a map of the Middle East shows why. The Iranian regime is engaged in a life-and-death struggle with Saudi Arabia and its Sunni allies for control of the region and ultimately the top prize, seizure of Mecca and Medina. Tehran prefers to operate through proxies—HAMAS in Gaza, Hizballah in Lebanon and Syria, Shi’ite militias in Iraq—and so it is in Yemen.

The Houthis are Zaidi Shi’ites, who are being armed, backed, funded, and supported by Iran and Lebanese Hizballah. A Houthi victory in Yemen would give Iran a strategic foothold at the southwest tip of the Arabian Peninsula from which to threaten a 1,770-kilometer shared border with Saudi Arabia. Potentially even more concerning, Yemen sits astride the Bab al-Mandab, one of the most important straits in the world, that connects the Arabian Sea/Gulf of Aden with the Red Sea and Suez Canal. Houthi rebels already have fired Iranian-supplied ballistic missiles at both Riyadh and coalition vessels off the Yemeni coast. U.S. State Department Special Representative for Iran, Brian Hook, held a 29 November 2018 press conference at the Joint-Base Anacostia Bolling to display some of that Iranian weaponry, recovered by the Saudis.

Clearly, the stakes are high. MBS is an imperfect partner but a necessary one for the confrontation with a nuclear-arming Iran, still-powerful al-Qa’eda, and a possibly resurgent Islamic State, that lies ahead. To their credit, it seems that President Trump, Secretary of State Pompeo, and Secretary of Defense Mattis all understand this. By standing by MBS now, when he most needs U.S. support, we may establish a relationship to our and our allies’ benefit for a generation to come. This is about a long-term strategic policy for the U.S., Israel, Egypt, Gulf and other regional partners—not just Saudi Arabia.

Senators, think again and don’t go wobbly now.

RELATED ARTICLE: U.S. Senate Resolution on Saudi Arabia Could Change Middle East Dynamics

EDITORS NOTE: This column with images originally appeared on the Center for Security Policy website. It is republished with permission.

Erdogan: Turkish intelligence orchestrated anti-Saudi campaign in Western media over Khashoggi murder

Erdogan wanted to weaken the Saudis in order to strengthen Turkey’s bid to be once again the leader of the Islamic world. The Western media eagerly played along, wanting to use the Khashoggi murder as a stick they could use to beat Trump, as well as to weaken the opposition to the Islamic Republic of Iran, and burnish Obama’s legacy, the Iranian nuclear deal. So Turkish intel and the Western establishment media happily cooperated with each other, their goals coinciding.

This indicates once again that the establishment media is not by any stretch of the imagination an actual news source. It’s just a propaganda organ for the Left.

RELATED ARTICLE: Saudi Prince Leaves G20 Confident After Khashoggi Scandal

EDITORS NOTE: This column with images first appeared on Jihad Watch. It is republished with permission. The featured photo is by Meriç Dağlı on Unsplash.

Louis Farrakhan leads “Death to America” chant during solidarity trip to Iran

Will the Left disavow him now? Of course not. Why should they disavow him for expressing their most cherished hope?

Louis Farrakhan

“Report: Notorious Antisemite Louis Farrakhan Leads ‘Death to America’ Chant on Solidarity Trip to Iran,” by Benjamin Kerstein, Algemeiner, November 4, 2018:

Nation of Islam leader and prominent antisemite Louis Farrakhan chanted “Death to America” and claimed that “America has never been a democracy” on Sunday during a solidarity trip to Iran, ahead of the re-implementation of US sanctions on the country this week.

According to Iran’s semi-official state news agency Mehr, Farrakhan said at a meeting with the Secretary of Iran’s Expediency Council Mohsen Rezaei that America is conspiring against Iran.

“I understand how the enemies have plotted against the Iranian people and I would like to stay alongside you to stop their plots,” he said.

He also blasted American support for Saudi Arabia, Iran’s arch-rival in the region, and added, “Satan seeks to divide Muslims and wants them to kill each other, while God tells us in the Quran to be united.”

Farrakhan has referred to Jews as the “synagogue of Satan.”

In his remarks, he condemned the new American sanctions on Iran that will take effect on Monday. “Today, I warn the American government that sanctioning Iran is a big mistake,” he said.

In addition, he stated that African-Americans are part of Iran’s Islamic revolution.

According to the Farsi language Islamic Republic of Iran News Network (IRINN), he also spoke to students at the University of Tehran law school and fulminated against Israel, praised women’s rights in Iran and the Islamic laws demanding they cover themselves. He claimed, “America has never been a democracy and has always leaned towards the wealthy and powerful class.”

At the end of his talk, Farrakhan chanted the common Iranian slogan “Death to America,” and was joined by members of the audience.

Farrakhan, perhaps the most notorious black supremacist in America, has a long history of antisemitic statements. Most recently, he referred to Jews as “termites.”

Several prominent American activists and politicians have been linked to Farrakhan in recent years. Tamika Mallory, a leader of the Women’s March, praised him as “GOAT” or “Greatest of All Time.” Linda Sarsour, another leader of the March, attended an event with Farrakhan and has repeatedly refused to condemn him….

EDITORS NOTE: This column with images originally appeared on Jihad Watch. It is republished with permission. The feature image is of then Illinois Sen. Barack Obama (D) and Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan that he took in 2005 at a Congressional Black Caucus meeting. Photo by Askia Muhammad.

Iranians posed as Americans on Facebook to hype Mueller investigation, slam Trump and Kavanaugh

The leaders of the Islamic Republic knows which side of the American political divide aids and enables their rogue regime. And Facebook was doubtless too busy up to now to notice this activity — busy deleting the accounts of supporters of Trump and foes of jihad terror, or shadowbanning their accounts.

“Iranians Caught Posing As Americans On Facebook To Hype Mueller Investigation, Slam Trump And Kavanaugh,” by Pater Hasson, Daily Caller, October 26, 2018:

Facebook on Friday deleted 82 pages, groups and accounts that it determined were part of an online influence operation located in Iran….

The pages had over a combined 1 million followers and the groups had more than 25,000 members, Gleicher said.

Facebook provided several examples of the Iranian propaganda, which promoted former National Football League (NFL) quarterback Colin Kaepernick’s activism while criticizing President Donald Trump and Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh.

EDITORS NOTE: This column with images first appeared on Jihad Watch. It is republished with permission.